The Internet is an integral part of our modern lives, providing us with countless opportunities and access to information from all around the world. But how exactly does data travel through the global Internet, and how is the flow of world Internet traffic established? Let’s simplify this complex process and explore its basics.
1. Data Transmission through the Network
When you visit a website, send an email, or interact with any other resource on the Internet, your data is converted into a digital format and transmitted through a computer network. This is achieved using data transmission protocols, a set of rules and standards that ensure the correct transfer of information between network nodes.
2. Data Division into Packets
Your data is not transmitted as a single piece; instead, it is broken down into small pieces called packets. Each packet has a header containing information about the source and destination, allowing the network to find the optimal path to the destination point.
Internet traffic packets travel through various network nodes called routers to find the shortest and most efficient path to the destination. Each router has a routing table that helps it make decisions about where to send each packet.
4. Passing through ISPs
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) play a crucial role in facilitating the transmission of global traffic. Your data passes through an ISP, which may have its own network and routers or use the services of other providers to transfer data to distant regions of the world.
5. International Data Exchange
Internet traffic crosses country borders, passing through International Data Exchange Points (IXPs). These exchange points are nodes where ISPs and other telecommunications companies exchange traffic from their networks.
6. Submarine Cable Networks
To transmit traffic across oceans and seas, submarine optical cables are used. They connect continents and provide fast data transfer between countries.
7. Delivery to the Destination Point
Once all the packets reach the destination point, they are reassembled, reconstructing the original file or request, thus enabling the viewing of a website or receiving an email.
Therefore, global Internet traffic is a complex yet well-organized process of data transmission, utilizing a network of computers, routers, and submarine cables. This enables us to enjoy a multitude of opportunities that the Internet provides, connecting us with the entire world and keeping us informed about events and news, regardless of our location.