UA is a top-level domain in Ukraine. It is used for registering new websites that target Ukrainian users. Typically, second-level subdomains are used when registering trademarks or commercial organizations. According to current legislation, registration of second-level domains in the domain zone is possible in cases where the website name completely matches the name of the trademark.
The UA domain zone operates in Ukraine and is a national domain used by website owners for targeting Ukrainian users. It is among the leaders in the number of registered resources with over 550,000 names. When registering a domain, it is important to avoid common mistakes. The characteristics of the domain zone include:
Private website names in the second-level subdomain are registered only if the company has an official trademark for the goods or services it provides. Otherwise, registration in the zone is prohibited.
A domain can only be registered if the owner of the website is also the owner of the trademark.
Trademarks are often registered only to obtain hosting in the UA domain. It is important to cooperate with a licensed registrar to save time. Before making any manipulations, it is better to consult with a qualified registrar who will help solve all the problems.
There are many trademarks with one class of activities, but only one domain. This can lead to conflicts over the website name. The priority is given to the applications that were submitted earlier.
Registering a name in the UA zone is suitable for those who are engaged in business or have their own trademark. It will help reduce costs and make the brand more recognizable. The top-level domain has its own history and interesting nuances worth knowing.
When was it registered?
The top-level domain officially came into existence on December 1, 1992. John Postel, one of the pioneers of the implementation and emergence of the internet in everyday life, entered the corresponding domain name on the servers. It was at that time that the first public domains appeared in Ukrainian regions, which began to gradually develop and become more common throughout the country. Oleg Voloshchuk had to administer all these server computing powers.
The first domain names were officially registered in 1995. Experienced specialists Igor Svyridov and Dmitry Kokhmanyuk were in charge of their administration. They created the Ukrainian Network Association, which dealt with all issues related to domain name registration. Over time, a network of public regional domains began to actively develop, which became widespread throughout the country.
By the beginning of the 2000s, a whole structure of network administrative powers had emerged. A corresponding memorandum was signed, which spoke of the creation of an association of internet providers in Ukraine under the UA domain zone. This became an official recognition and achievement of Ukrainian society. At this time, many websites registered in the domain zone appeared. They were related to commercial activities and had official registration, which allowed them to legally conduct business.
Over time, more second-level domains appeared. Organizations were created to support and register sites in the domain. This led to problems with dividing responsibilities. Cloud technologies were introduced, which significantly simplified the task of storing and distributing resources between the computing powers of the system. There were more than 500,000 registrations. It became possible to use Cyrillic characters as well as third-level domain names.
Now, the names and registration of websites are controlled by the Intellectual Property Organization, which provides services for resolving disputes over domain names in the zone. This allows a trademark owner to obtain a name that has been registered by another person or misused. When filing a request for dispute resolution, it is sufficient to provide evidence of violations of the use of the domain name.
The first websites on the domain
Although UA legally began to exist on December 1, 1992, informally it was supported at the routing level since the end of 1990. Sites and subdomains were already being registered in the domain zone at that time. After official registration, coordination and administration were carried out by specialists Dmitry Volodin and Nikolay Saukh.
Active preparation for registering the domain zone had been underway since the fall of 1991. Technical support was provided by international telecommunications organizations. The real work on the domain began only in January 1993. The initial registration rules were simple enough to allow anyone interested to create a site in the domain zone.
In early 1991, Igor Svyridov created one of the first sites in the UA domain – softp.kiev.ua. At that time, all mail signals passed through another domain, so the official name of the site contained several prefixes. At that time, access to the Internet was configured only through email, so it was necessary to make a call through a fast modem.
Gradually, second-level domains began to appear. Public domains such as net.ua, gov.ua, and com.ua began to function actively from 1995. Later, regional subdomains appeared, which were used to localize sites in certain regions of Ukraine.
Other second-level domains appeared later, such as the public domains edu.ua and org.ua. Now educational resources and organizations were appearing. The first private domain name appeared only in 2001 – business.ua. By 2000, a layer of registrar companies and registered sites had already been formed. At that time, all rules and principles were regulated solely by the rules of the UA domain.
After registration, the network actively developed in Ukraine. By 1995, second-level subdomains appeared. An association of employees was created to administer and control domain registration. By 1997, a structure of public regional addresses had emerged. They were used to create regional resources oriented towards commercial activities of organizations in corresponding regions.
In 2000, a Memorandum was signed in Kiev, calling for the cooperation of all state structures and internet service providers to create a national registry of domain names in the UA zone. This was a breakthrough in the national development of the internet in Ukraine. By the end of 2000, a whole community of companies engaged in domain name registration had formed. Their activities were regulated by existing documents.
At the end of 2000, a government organization was formed that became a member of the internet operator community in Ukraine. The organization “Hostmaster” was registered. This company maintains the UA registry. During this period, the first private second-level domain name “business.ua” appeared. A small conflict arose between the government and “Hostmaster” as the former wanted to take control of domain administration.
Over time, cloud technology was implemented for domain zone servers. This allowed for increased computational power and improved data storage efficiency on server computers.
In 2010, there were over 500,000 sites in the zone. IPv6 support was introduced. A mirror of the root server was also created for the first time, allowing the use of Cyrillic characters in website names.
In 2011, a new technology called EPP was introduced. The first specialized conference was held to discuss modern networking issues in the domain. In 2014, Hostmaster signed a contract regarding the distribution of domain names in the zone.
As of March 2013, the delegation process was completed. The UKR domain was created. A priority system was also introduced for the registration of new domains. Registration rules were established, allowing anyone to obtain a name for their website. The main characteristics include:
The applicant chooses the domain name independently. The first application is given priority.
The UKR domain does not indicate affiliation with the Ukrainian segment. This allows for the creation of resources for international purposes, which is beneficial for those whose work is oriented towards the foreign market.
Only second-level names are allowed for registration.
The registration period is from 1 year to 10 years. Renewal is required after that.
Cyrillic characters, hyphens, apostrophes, and Arabic numerals can be used. Latin characters are prohibited.
Since May 2019, the World Intellectual Property Organization has provided arbitration services to resolve disputes over intellectual property rights for websites in the domain zone. As a result, all websites are subject to inspections.
Second-Level Domains under .UA
There are also geographic and commercial second-level domains that indicate the website’s affiliation with the Ukrainian domain zone. There are also third-level domains, such as regional subdomains used to denote specific regions within the country. There are identifiers for commercial, telecommunications, educational, and other types of resources.
Ukrainian domains are registered for different purposes, and there are no specific limitations. However, there is a conditional classification:
- com.ua – suitable for designating business structures, companies, or organizations;
- net.ua – used for providers or companies providing telecommunications services;
- org.ua – for government organizations and individuals;
- gov.ua – for websites of government structures and organizations;
- in.ua – private websites for specific population groups.
Commercial domains are also distinguished. They are used for specific organizations and structures that operate in the field of providing goods and services to customers. Such websites have specific owners who can regulate the domain’s operation and set a specific price. Commercial domains are classified as follows:
- pp.ua – private individuals providing services;
- biz.ua – legal entities and individual entrepreneurs;
- co.ua – various organizations and business structures;
- v.ua – there are no specific restrictions for registration.
There are also regional second-level domains used to denote websites in specific areas.
The UA domain is widespread in Ukraine. It displays the organization’s and company’s national affiliation and allows for search engine optimization. Advantages of registration include:
- A recognizable and reliable domain that instills trust among Ukrainian users and indicates reliability and safety.
- Registered websites are more trustworthy. To register, a trademark is required, so the owner undergoes checks.
- The possibility to create a short and concise name that is easily recognizable among potential clients. The name is tailored to the Ukrainian market segment.
- Domain registration is possible three days after payment and submission of all documents proving the creation of a trademark. The maximum registration period is ten years.